Doctor Price was right, as usual. Cod liver oil
is very good for you, more than you ever knew.
Research studies ranging from 1918-2001 give cod
liver oil an A+ rating. This marvelous golden oil
contains large amounts of elongated omega-3 fatty
acids, preformed vitamin A and the sunlight vitamin
D, essential nutrients that are hard to obtain in
sufficient amounts in the modern diet. Samples may
also naturally contain small amounts of the
important bone- and blood-maintainer vitamin K.
There is hardly a disease in the books that does
not respond well to treatment that includes cod
liver oil, and not just infectious diseases but also
chronic modern diseases like heart disease and
cancer. Cod liver oil provides vitamin D that helps
build strong bones in children and helps prevent
osteoporosis in adults. The fatty acids in cod liver
oil are also very important for the development of
the brain and nervous system. "If you want to
prevent learning disabilities in your children,"
said David Horrobin, distinguished medical and
biochemical researcher, "feed them cod liver oil."
Cod liver oil contains more vitamin A and more
vitamin D per unit weight than any other common
food. One hundred grams of regular cod liver oil
provides 100,000 IU of vitamin A, almost three times
more than beef liver, the next richest source; and
10,000 IU vitamin D, almost four times more than
lard, the next richest source. Of course, cod liver
oil is only consumed in small amounts, but even a
tablespoon (about 15 grams) provides well over the
recommended daily allowance for both nutrients.
In addition, cod liveroil contains 7 percent each
of the elongated omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.
EPA is the precursor of important
prostaglandins, localized tissue hormones that
help the body deal with inflammation; and DHA is
extremely important for the development and function
of the brain and nervous system. So it's no surprise
that in numerous studies cod liver oil has proven to
be a powerhouse in fighting disease.
GOOD FOR WHAT AILS YOU
Cod liver oil greatly improves heart function to
prevent heart disease and to treat it even in
advanced stages, after a heart attack and after
heart surgery. Cod liver oil alters the linings of
the arteries in such a way as to improve healing
after damage. This is attributed to the omega-3
fatty acids but vitamin A, D and K all have
important roles to play in facilitating mineral
absorption, improving muscle function and supporting
elasticity of the blood vessels. The
inflammation-reducing prostaglandins made from EPA
help mediate the inflammatory response in the
arteries. In other studies the heart-protective
effect was associated with changes in the muscle
response to serotonin, increasing the heart's
ability to "relax."1-15 In a study with
rats, treatment with cod liver oil actually caused
artery-blocking atheromas to become smaller and
blood vessel diameter to enlarge.55
Weston Price noted that heart attack deaths
increased during periods when the vitamin A content
of the diet was low. Cod liver oil can provide
vitamin A on a continuous basis throughout the year.
Many of the conditions addressed by cod liver oil
are considered related under the title Syndrome X.
These include obesity, hypertension, insulin
resistance, adult onset diabetes and stroke.
Evidence is accumulating that these diseases of
civilization are the result of high levels of
omega-6 fatty acids and low levels of omega-3 fatty
acids along with deficiencies of fat-soluble
vitamins. We may be paying a very high price for our
rejection of parental wisdom to take our cod liver
In numerous studies, the elongated omega-3 fats
found in cod liver oil have been shown to improve
brain function, memory, stress response, immune
response, allergies, asthma, learning and behavioral
disorders, including bipolar syndrome and
Cod liver oil is most famous for contributing to
bone health, preventing and reversing rickets in
osteomalacia in adults.16, 17 Before
the discovery of cod liver oil as a source of
vitamin D, many children suffered greatly with
deformed bones. Osteoporosis responds to vitamin D
and to cod liver oil. Sufficient elongated omega-3
oils found in cod liver oil are one of the keys to
keeping and rebuilding bone.18, 19 In
women, higher levels of vitamin D from cod liver oil
improve bone mineral density.20
Two of the symptoms of low levels of vitamin D
are bone pain and muscle pain. This may manifest as
pain in the legs, muscle weakness and difficulty
climbing stairs. Numerous studies have shown
improvement in muscle pain, muscle strength and bone
pain scores with cod liver oil.40, 41
Cod liver oil is effective in treating arthritis
as well. Researchers funded by Great Britain's
Arthritis Research Campaign found that the elongated
omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil reduce both
pain and damage in inflamed joints.56
Pregnant women using cod liver oil have infants
with a lower risk for juvenile type 1 diabetes.21
This effect was found only in mothers taking cod
liver oil, not in mothers taking multivitamin
supplements. Cod liver oil taken by nursing mothers
improves the fatty acid profile in breast milk to
promote optimal brain development and also increases
levels of vitamin A to prevent infections.
Interestingly, cod liver oil does not provide
increased vitamin D in breast milk.23,24
Cod liver oil given to infants after birth and
during the first year had no protective effect
against type 1 diabetes but it nevertheless is an
important source of nutrients for optimal infant
health.22 In more than forty trials,
vitamin A has been shown to reduce morbidity and
mortality of children.25 Cod liver oil
was the supplement of choice in many of these
trials. Books on feeding infants published in the
1930s and 1940s routinely recommended cod liver oil,
starting with 1 teaspoon at the age of three weeks.
It was Dr. Spock who threw this wisdom out the
window by recommending vaccinations instead of the
powerful nutritional support of cod liver oil. Few
modern books on infant care mention the importance
of the fat-soluble nutrients in this wonderful
As for treating diabetes in adults, cod liver oil
has been used in a number of trials with both
insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent
diabetes. In both conditions cod liver oil improved
glucose response and other markers of the disease.26-31
Vitamin A in cod liver oil helps promote healing and
protects the retina, both problem areas in the
Cod liver oil has lowered blood pressure induced
by stress-elevated levels of cortisol.32-35
Cod liver oil given to rats reduced intraocular
pressure suggesting a use in prevention and
treatment of glaucoma.36 Vitamin D in cod
liver oil promotes absorption of calcium and
magnesium, thereby lowering blood pressure.
Colitis responds more effectively to the type of
omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil than to
medication.37-38 Cod liver oil should be
the first protocol for this condition as well as
irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease.
Topically applied, cod liver oil contributes to
faster wound healing and improvement in skin
quality.39 An excellent treatment for
diaper rash and other skin conditions is cod liver
oil mixed with zinc oxide. And cod liver oil taken
orally helps maintain soft skin and minimize
And what about cancer? All the nutrients in cod
liver oil help prevent cancer. Vitamin A has been
part of every successful alternative cancer therapy
so far. In a study in China, use of cod liver oil
was found to be protective against childhood
leukemia.57 In a study of Norwegian men
and women, consumption of cod liver oil was found to
protect against lung cancer.58
Eating fish will not provide the levels of
nutrients that are found in cod liver oil. Even in
heavy fish-eating populations, the addition of cod
liver oil improves health.42-43 And
taking fish oils is not the same as taking cod liver
liver oil. One tablespoon of regular cod liver oil
and one-half tablespoon of high-vitamin cod liver
oil provide the amount of elongated omega-3 fatty
acids found in twelve 1,000 mg fish oil capsules.
As for vitamin D, body oils of fish can be good
sources as long as you are willing to eat a lot of
them. One-half pound of fatty herring or sardines
gives a dose of vitamin D equal to that of about one
tablespoon of cod liver oil. But salmon oil has
one-fifth the potency of cod liver oil.
One concern about taking cod liver oil is the
presence of contaminants�heavy metals (such as
mercury, cadmium and lead), PCBs and so forth.
Fortunately, consumers need not worry when it comes
to cod liver oil. All cod liver oils in the US must
be tested according to protocols of the Association
of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and approved free
of detectable levels of 32 contaminants before they
can be imported into this country. Furthermore,
mercury is water soluble. It may be present in the
flesh of fish, but it is not present in the oil.
Another concern is rancidity. Cod liver oil can
become rancid if improperly handled. In a 1988
study, peroxide values (indicating rancidity) ranged
from a low of 2 to a high of 44.7.44
Nevertheless, properly handled cod liver oil is
relatively stable. It contains 21 percent saturated
fatty acids and 57 percent monounsaturated fatty
acids, which provide stability. The fishy smell of
cod liver oil is due to the presence of small
amounts of fish protein and is not a sign of
rancidity. To ensure that your cod liver oil is
fresh, avoid buying the large economy size or the
end-of-season sale item. Buy cod liver oil in small
dark bottles and keep them in a cool dark place. Cod
liver oil need not be refrigerated after opening if
it is used up quickly�within two months.
Virtually all cod liver oil imported into the US
comes from Norway, and while all of it is safe,
there are different grades, depending on vitamin
levels. The lighter oil from the "top of the barrel"
has a lower molecular weight, goes rancid more
quickly and has lower levels of vitamins, while the
heavier oil, which sinks, is richer in vitamins. The
heavier oil is what Dr. Price referred to as
high-vitamin cod liver oil. It contains double the
amounts of vitamin A and D as regular cod liver oil.
Virtually all cod liver oil imported into the US is
the lighter, "top of the barrel" variety. The
Norwegians keep the best for themselves!
Whenever taking cod liver oil, remember the findings
of Dr. Price. He noted that he did not get good
results from cod liver oil unless he gave it
concurrently with high-vitamin butter. Just why this
is so is a matter of speculation, but we do know
that the very unsaturated fatty acids found in cod
liver oil cannot be effectively assimilated and
stored in the tissues without the presence of
adequate saturated fatty acids, the kind that would
be provided by butter. This means that even regular
butter would help support cod liver oil therapy; but
Price found that the combination of cod liver oil
with high-vitamin butter, from cows eating rapidly
growing green grass, was nothing short of
miraculous, reversing tooth decay and bringing
patients back from the brink of death.
I do not find it hard to take Carlson's cod liver
oil on a spoon, but for many, the big challenge is
how to get this oily substance down. One technique
is to add cod liver oil to a small amount of water
or fresh juice, stir and then quickly send it down
the hatch. If you can't bring yourself to take cod
liver oil on a spoon or in water, then use the
capsules. For babies and small children, use an eye
OLD RESEARCH BROUGHT TO LIGHT
In researching this article, I had the great
fortune to stumble upon a book published in the
1930s�it is truly exciting to come upon material
found and lost and found again. Ultraviolet Light
and Vitamin D in Nutrition, by Katharine Blunt and
Ruth Cowan, published by the University of Chicago,
contains fascinating material, including a chapter
on the research of Mrs. May Mellanby published in
1918 in The Lancet II, page 767.
The book describes the work of scientists E. M.
Honeywell, A. F. Hess and C. E. Bills (after which
the Bills's Scale for determining antirachitic value
for vitamin D is named) who studied all aspects of
fish oil potency, production and seasonal
distribution. Early in their research they
discovered that oil extracted from cod when the fish
were fat in the summer contained much lower amounts
of vitamin D. Summer oil scored 100 on the Bills
scale but winter oil scored above 1,000 and some
oils scored 20,000. Their conclusion: "For a fish of
a given size, antirachitic potency varies inversely
with the amount of fat or oil in the liver." In
other words, the less oil in the fish, the more
concentrated it was.
In one fascinating study, they found that fish
kept in darkened aquariums and fed on trimmed raw
veal muscle had the same amount of vitamin D as
free-swimming fish exposed to sunlight. So how the
fish obtain vitamin D remains a mystery. Perhaps
they are able to extract it from microscopic
plankton and algae.
It is important to note that the amount of vitamin A
in cod liver oil does not have any consistent
relation with the amount of vitamin D. In numerous
samples, oils rich in vitamin A were poor in vitamin
D, and oils rich in vitamin D were poor in vitamin
According to the book, in 1922 the US imported about
1.8 million gallons of cod oil and cod liver oil. By
1927 this amount grew to almost 5 million gallons
based on data from the Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce of the United States Department of
Commerce. Cod oil is rancid oil used in the tanning
industry, not for human consumption. The figures
don't distinguish the difference, but most of the
increase was in the edible cod liver oil due to
research showing its benefit in preventing rickets.
According to the Commerce Yearbook of 1928,
"Medicinal oil production has increased greatly, and
the advance in its price has lessened the supply of
common cod oil for tanning."
In 2000, America imported only about one tenth
that amount (less than half a million gallons),
indicating a huge decline in use.
In 1930, when the book was compiled, the
technology was just being developed to determine
vitamin D potency. The accepted value as of August
31, 1929 was " one rat unit of vitamin D," defined
as "that amount of vitamin D which, when uniformly
distributed into the standard vitamin D deficient
diet-ration, will produce a narrow and continuous
line of calcium deposits on the metaphyses of the
distal end of the radii and ulnae of standard
rachitic rats." "Potent cod liver oil" is defined as
that containing one of these rat units per 0.75 mg.
The International Units started out as rat units!
Testing of 18 oils in use at that time showed
great variations in potency. Luckily today we have
methods of standardization and much better methods
of transportation and storage to improve the amount
of vitamin D and freshness of our cod liver oil.
EAT YOUR EGGS
In 1929, researchers tested a variety of foods
for vitamin D content and found the second most
potent source of vitamin D was egg yolk. The book
describes studies in which Hess both cured and
prevented rickets in rats by giving them egg yolks.
He also gave prophylactic treatment to 12 infants to
forestall development of rickets in the winter
months, which his experience had taught him to
expect in the great majority of bottle-fed infants.
He gave them one egg yolk added to their regular
formula starting in December. None of the 12
developed rickets in March as expected and, unlike
prior years, blood phosphates remained stable at
About this same time, Johns Hopkins University
investigators cured seven African-American children
of rickets, in most cases severe, by adding one or
two eggs daily to their diet of milk and cereal.
Like the vitamin D in cod liver oil, the amount
of vitamin D in egg yolks also varies. Researchers
in Kansas looked at four groups of hens: one group
got sunlight in the yard plus 30 minutes under a
quartz mercury vapor lamp producing UV-B light;
another got sunlight through glass plus 30 minutes
under the lamp; the third group got sunlight alone;
and the fourth group got sunlight under glass alone.
Eggs from hens under glass produced rickets in rats.
Those with considerable UV-B prevented rickets
completely and those with less (no lamp) caused the
development of slight rickets. Only the sunlight
plus lamp completely prevented rickets, showing that
the natural UV-B in Kansas did not provide
sufficient light for optimal vitamin D. Giving cod
liver oil to the chickens had the same effect as
exposure to UV-B light. Cod liver oil as two percent
of the ration increased levels of vitamin D in the
egg yolks fivefold.
The surprising conclusion is that chickens should
either be given sunlamp treatment or cod liver oil.
Poultrymen and consumers alike need to recognize
that the axiom "an egg is an egg" is a mistaken one.
Rather, "an inadequate ration may yield impoverished
eggs as well as animals." The authors suggest that
eggs be graded by vitamin content. What a concept!
Too bad no one listened. What would they think of
our so-called "organic" eggs from hens raised in
barns, never exposed to light and given
MEET MRS. MELLANBY
The most fascinating part of this little book is
the chapter describing the experiments done in
England by a Mrs. May Mellanby. Her husband, Dr. E.
Mellanby, was the author of over 400 studies and the
first to control rickets with diet. Cod liver oil
had been used for centuries as a remedy but the
specific application to rickets was first
demonstrated by Dr. Mellanby. (Control of rickets
using UV-B light was demonstrated almost
simultaneously by investigators at Columbia and
Johns Hopkins University in 1921.) In his research
into rickets in dogs, he discovered the
mineral-blocking effect of phytic acid in grains and
legumes. Dr. Mellanby demonstrated that diets
containing high levels of cereals, especially
oatmeal, and lacking vitamin D, are the most
effective producers of rickets. If vitamin D is
inadequate there is poor tooth development, but Mrs.
Mellanby then went on to prove that no matter how
much cereal is fed, if vitamin D is adequate tooth
formation is normal. Mrs. Mellanby believed that as
cereals increase in the diet, vitamin D must also be
increased to offset their anticalcifying
effects�think of the implications of this research
on today's baby-feeding habits, where infants are
given cereals as their first food but denied egg
yolks until they are one year old!
Mrs. Mellanby also determined that vitamin D must
be present from conception in order for proper tooth
formation to occur. If vitamin D is absent during
the early gestational period, the enamel cannot form
properly, and it cannot be repaired by giving
vitamin D later.
In her initial studies Mrs. Mellanby used dogs as
the source of data but she later examined more than
one thousand "baby" teeth from children. She divided
these teeth into four categories�normal, hypoplastic
(slightly underdeveloped), moderately underdeveloped
and grossly underdeveloped. Only 149, or about 14
percent, of the total 1,036 were sound. About
one-quarter were slightly underdeveloped, but nearly
two-thirds were moderately or grossly
It is more difficult to examine teeth in place,
but of 266 adult teeth examined by Mrs. Mellanby,
not one was sound. The teeth were extracted only for
purposes of straightening the teeth, which means
that they were erupting in a jaw that was
underdeveloped. Thus, children with narrow faces
most likely have underdeveloped teeth. Tooth
structure and later decay are directly related.
Prevention of cavities must start in the womb.
A final plum from this most fruitful book regards
secondary dentine. Secondary dentine, a less
well-organized form of tubular dentine, is produced
throughout life as a patching material where
cavities have begun, where the overlying enamel has
been worn away, and within the pulp chamber as part
of the aging process. Sometimes when cavities occur,
production of secondary dentine can "heal" the
decayed spot or rebuild portions of the tooth that
have worn away. If vitamin D is adequate, secondary
dentine will be well calcified. If vitamin D is
lacking, dentine will be of poor quality or not
present at all.
There is some evidence that the mineralization of
dentine may depend on calcium derived from saliva
rather than blood; in other words, it is deposited
from the exterior rather than the interior of the
tooth. The book describes studies by Dr. C. L.
Pattison who, working with Mrs. Mellanby, determined
that the calcium content of saliva doubled or even
tripled when the diet contained adequate vitamin D
from cod liver oil.
Now that I have told you all this good news about
cod liver oil, I need to comment on the research
surrounding its possible toxicity. Over-elevated
serum levels of vitamin D are a possibility if you
combine summer or southern sun and cod liver oil. So
if you are spending a lot of time out in the sun
during the summer months, it's probably best to cut
back on the dose. If you are unsure, you should test
your blood levels of vitamin D.
Cod liver oil is no longer recommended in Great
Britain and in the US pregnant women are advised to
avoid most vitamin A and vitamin A-containing foods,
including cod liver oil. Both countries have adopted
this policy because of the recognized teratogenicity
(may cause birth defects) of retinoic acid, a
synthetic form of vitamin A. But low vitamin A also
causes birth defects. In the developing countries,
such as Brazil, Pakistan and India, vitamin A
deficiency is widespread, afflicting millions. A
1992 survey of the US population determined that 50
percent of Americans consume 19 percent or less of
the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) or 400 IU.
The original study showing birth defects
associated with intake of mostly synthetic vitamin A
exceeding 5,000 IU daily was published November 23,
1995 in the New England Journal of Medicine.46 Other
studies showing an association of birth defects with
vitamin A concerned topical creams containing
vitamin A derivatives such as Accutane, or extremely
high doses of A used in animal studies.47-52
A later study, less well publicized, from the
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development (NICHD), found no association with birth
defects in women who took up to 10,000 IU of vitamin
A during pregnancy. Because few women took more than
10,000 IU, researchers could not determine whether
higher doses were a problem. Later Mills and others
continued their research and determined that after
serum testing and determining safe serum levels,
women taking 30,000 IU of preformed vitamin A from
animal foods (not beta-carotene) daily had the same
blood levels of A as healthy pregnant women in the
first trimester who had healthy babies. The
conclusion is that a dosage over 30,000 IU vitamin A
daily may be teratogenic for a certain few, but
anything up to that amount is safe.53-54
Thus if you are or may become pregnant, limit cod
liver oil intake to not more than a total vitamin A
value of 30,000 IU. If using my favorite brand,
Carlson Labs cod liver oil, that would equal the
amount of vitamin A found in 12 teaspoons or 4
tablespoons, more than anyone would ever take. If
using high-vitamin cod liver oil, the limit would be
2 tablespoons. Two tablespoons of regular cod liver
oil provide 15,000 IU vitamin A, 2600 IU vitamin D
and 6 grams of mixed omega-3 fatty acids, safe for
pregnancy and good for mom and baby.
There is one situation in which high levels of
vitamin A are not recommended and that is the
condition of certain types of liver disease in which
there is altered vitamin A metabolism. This is
frequently the case with alcoholism. Alcoholics
should not take high doses (not more than 1-1.5
tablespoons of regular cod liver oil) and what they
do take should be accompanied by zinc supplements.
The enzymes needed for vitamin A metabolism in the
liver are zinc dependent.
The most likely culprits for production of birth
defects in humans are topical and oral vitamin A
analogs, not cod liver oil. Researchers have
criticized the original 1995 study, from which
governmental policy has been derived, for
overstating the negative effect. Only 1.4 percent
took supplements exceeding 10,000 IU a day, not a
large enough sample from which to draw conclusions.
However, it is important to never combine cod liver
oil or vitamin A from supplements with oral or
topical medications for acne or other skin disorders
treated with retinoic acid derivatives.
If you sunbathe regularly and have found that
your vitamin D levels are within the normal range,
do not use cod liver oil unless you are willing to
test and retest to determine that your blood levels
of vitamin D have not gone too high. We do not know
enough to say whether or not sunbathing and cod
liver oil work synergistically or antagonistically.
If you decide to get lots of sun and also use cod
liver oil, please send me your vitamin D tests for
my continued research. Cod liver oil use is safe in
most of the US and all of Canada in winter but it
should not be combined with other sources of vitamin
D without careful testing and monitoring.
PRICE WAS RIGHT
Dr. Price was right. . . we all need to take cod
liver oil (and eat plenty of good butter). For
growing children, and for almost every disease
condition, cod liver oil is the number one superfood,
the supplement of choice.
For Vitamin D testing and monitoring
information, send for the Sunlight and Vitamin D
www.sunlightandvitamind.com or send $38.50 to K.
Sullivan, PO Box 961, Woodacre, CA 94973. You can
wait until May 2002 for the publication of Naked
at Noon�The Importance of Sunlight and Vitamin D,
which will contain the sunlight and vitamin D
protocols in greater detail. We are also working
with DiagnosTechs laboratory to develop a saliva
test for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin K. Since
these are the factors regulating teeth and bone it
will be an easy way to diagnose and to monitor
treatment. Stay tuned.
Note: Carlson Lab's cod liver oil, with a
pleasant lemon taste, is available from
www.vitaminshoppe.com . High-vitamin cod
liver oil is available from Radiant Life (888)
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WHAT IF WE
RUN OUT OF COD LIVER OIL?
Cod liver oil is not the only rich source of
vitamins A and D. In 1926 Hess and Weinstock
determined that puffer fish liver oil was 15 times
more potent than cod liver oil in vitamin D, or what
was then called antirachitic factor. On the rating
scale with cod liver oil as 100, puffer liver oil
posted 1500. (Haddock liver oil posted a lowly 10.)
The best cod liver oil replacement for Americans
is the burbot or Lota lota, a fish found extensively
in most of the Great Lakes. The burbot was not
typically consumed as a food in the US, but burbot
liver oil was found to be eight times as active as
cod liver oil, scoring 800 on the antirachitic Bills
Commonly called "lawyers" in the Great Lakes
region, the burbot is a mottled olive-green fish
weighing 1-3 pounds and measuring 15-22 inches.
These elongated, cylindrical, freshwater codfish
inhabit most waters of Alaska, Canada and northern
United States as well as corresponding latitudes of
Eurasia. Despite the burbot's homely form, its meat
is palatable and nutritious and considered a
delicacy in Scandinavia.
Early Great Lakes fishermen derided the burbot as
trash fish. In the middle of the 20th century, the
Great Lakes burbot populations declined under the
onslaught of the sea lamprey. Today, however, burbot
are returning to the lakes in increasing numbers.
Burbot spawn under the midwinter ice, usually in one
to four feet of water, though sometimes deeper. By
midsummer, they move out to the cool depths of the
lake, where they roam the open waters with lake
trout, lake whitefish and other deepwater fish.
Many knowledgeable fishermen savor burbot. When
boiled and buttered, the sweet flavor of burbot has
earned it the title of "poor man's lobster." Though
they continue to have an undeserved reputation as
"trash fish," the commercial harvest of burbot from
Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan increased
nearly fivefold during the early 1980s to a total of
nearly 100,000 pounds annually. Perhaps it's time to
look into the burbot as a commercial source of
high-vitamin oil. Of course it will be important to
test the oil for the presence of heavy metals and
pesticides. Development of a domestic source of
high-vitamin fish liver oil provides additional
incentive to clean up the Great Lakes!
DOSAGES AND DANGERS
If pregnant or pregnancy is possible, limit cod
liver oil intake to not more than 30,000 IU A per
day. Two tablespoons of regular cod liver oil, one
tablespoon high-vitamin cod liver oil is a dose that
is safe and adequate for pregnant women and, in
fact, all adults. There is no indication that anyone
needs a dose of cod liver oil exceeding two
tablespoons except in certain special circumstances.
More is not better.
Infants and growing children can tolerate
higher-per-pound doses of vitamin D and cod liver
oil. Recommended dosages are as follows: one
teaspoon from birth to six months, two teaspoons
from six months to three years, one tablespoon from
4-10 years and two tablespoons thereafter during
winter months or when not sunning.
Never combine sources of vitamin A. Vitamin A and
its derivatives are found in skin lotions and
creams, oral medications and vitamin supplements.
The 30,000 IU limit is from all sources.
If you sun regularly and spend winter months in
the South, you need to find another way to get
elongated fatty acids (such as organ meats). You
really do not want too much vitamin D. High doses of
cod liver oil are used to promote atherosclerosis in
animal studies. Too much D is too much D.
When using a UV-B meter and sunning to raise
vitamin D, you will need the Vitamin D and Sunlight
protocol. Cod liver oil can be reduced or eliminated
depending on your location and exposure times.
Cod liver oil mixed with zinc oxide is better for
the skin than any of the prescription medications,